# PHP Operators. In-depth Look At What You Need To Know

Posted by TotalDC

Now that we covered strings in PHP and some built-in functions to manipulate strings, let’s talk about all kinds of operators that are available in PHP.

## What Is Operators In PHP

Operators are symbols that tell the PHP to perform certain actions. For example the addition (+) symbol is an operator that tells PHP to add two variables or values. While The greater-than (>) symbol is an operator that tells PHP to compare two values.

Here is a list describing the different operators used in PHP.

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The arithmetic operators are used to perform common arithmetical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and many more. Here is a complete list of arithmetic operators in PHP.

``````<?php
\$x = 16;
\$y = 4;
print(\$x + \$y); // Result: 20
print(\$x - \$y); // Result: 12
print(\$x * \$y); // Result: 64
print(\$x / \$y); // Result: 4
print(\$x % \$y); // Result: 0
?>``````

## PHP Assignment Operators

The assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

``````<?php
\$x = 10;
print \$x; // Result: 10

\$x = 20;
\$x += 30;
print \$x; // Result: 50

\$x = 50;
\$x -= 20;
print \$x; // Result: 30

\$x = 5;
\$x *= 25;
print \$x; // Result: 125

\$x = 50;
\$x /= 10;
print \$x; // Result: 5

\$x = 100;
\$x %= 15;
print \$x; // Result: 10
?>``````

## PHP Comparison Operators

The comparison operators are used to compare two values and return Boolean (true or false). The following example will show you these comparison operators in action:

``````<?php
\$x = 25;
\$y = 35;
\$z = "25";
var_dump(\$x == \$z);  // Result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x === \$z); // Result: boolean false
var_dump(\$x != \$y);  // Result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x !== \$z); // Result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x < \$y);   // Result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x > \$y);   // Result: boolean false
var_dump(\$x <= \$y);  // Result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x >= \$y);  // Result: boolean false
?>``````

## PHP Incrementing And Decrementing Operators

The increment/decrement operators are used to increment or decrement a variable’s value and the following example will show you these increment and decrement operators in action:

``````<?php
\$x = 10;
print ++\$x; // Result: 11
print \$x;   // Result: 11

\$x = 10;
print \$x++; // Result: 10
print \$x;   // Result: 11

\$x = 10;
print --\$x; // Result: 9
print \$x;   // Result: 9

\$x = 10;
print \$x--; // Result: 10
print \$x;   // Result: 9
?>``````

## PHP Logical Operators

The logical operators are typically used to combine conditional statements. Let’s look at some examples:

``````<?php
\$year = 2021;
// Leap years are divisible by 400 or by 4 but not 100
if((\$year % 400 == 0) || ((\$year % 100 != 0) && (\$year % 4 == 0))){
print "\$year is a leap year.";
} else{
print "\$year is not a leap year.";
}
?>``````

## PHP String Operators

There are two operators which are designed forĀ strings. Here is an example for you:

``````<?php
\$x = "Hello";
\$y = " World!";
print \$x . \$y; // result: Hello World!

\$x .= \$y;
print \$x; // result: Hello World!
?>``````

## PHP Array Operators

The array operators are used to compare arrays. The following example will show you these array operators in action:

``````<?php
\$x = array("a" => "Red", "b" => "Green", "c" => "Blue");
\$y = array("u" => "Yellow", "v" => "Black", "w" => "Pink");
\$z = \$x + \$y; // Union of \$x and \$y
var_dump(\$z);
var_dump(\$x == \$y);   // result: boolean false
var_dump(\$x === \$y);  // result: boolean false
var_dump(\$x != \$y);   // result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x <> \$y);   // result: boolean true
var_dump(\$x !== \$y);  // result: boolean true
?>``````

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